Land Use and Agriculture

  • To reduce the uncertainty facing investors in agricultural development, improved strategic land use planning and mechanisms for tenure resolution are required. To facilitate this process, it is proposed that Strategic Agricultural Development Areas be prioritised and established.
  • This approach would be complimented by the creation of an Office of the Coordinator General in far northern Queensland. The Office is required to coordinate more effective strategic regional land use planning and major development approvals, supported by increased State investment to process subsidiary tenure resolution efforts.

A CSIRO and James Cook University (JCU) report into land tenure issues in northern Australia identified key actions required to ensure land tenure arrangements facilitate rather than hinder investment in the region.

The report identified that the majority of land in northern Australia is crown-owned (75.4%), two-thirds of which is pastoral leasehold. Another 18.5% is Indigenous land and privately-owned land accounts for 6.1%. However, Indigenous land interests cover an estimated 94% of northern Australia and there are limited arrangements to support Traditional Owners in leading development opportunities within these various tenures.

In the State of Queensland, an estimated 65% of land is leasehold, with term leases for grazing and agriculture the principal arrangement. High value agriculture is permitted by the Native Title Act (1993) on term leases subject to notices, which does not require an Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) or consent.

In 1996 the Native Title Act confirmed existing freehold and perpetual leases extinguished native title, however it is the State’s view this can only be achieved if native title is extinguished either by agreement (ILUA) or order of the Court.

Many pastoral tenures therefore have quite restrictive requirements that need careful negotiation for development. Native title issues in particular are sensitive as the land holder cannot achieve more secure tenure unless native title is surrendered or extinguished. Many others are impacted by the Queensland Vegetation Management Act (1999), which was amended in 2018 to ban broad-scale clearing of remnant vegetation for agriculture.

The reduced certainty regarding land use is impacting both agricultural and environmental management investment as many leaseholder and financial institutions require a more secure form of tenure to underpin the huge capital investment required for high value agriculture.
Combined with land tenure uncertainty, to improve agricultural investment in Tropical North Queensland (TNQ) an opportunity exists to streamline development approvals.



Productive agricultural land is an irreplaceable asset for current and future generations and must be effectively identified, managed and preserved through improved land use planning and project assessment frameworks.

While land ownership in Australia is governed by common and statutory laws, in the context of northern Queensland a lack of strategic planning and land tenure complexities have frustrated new investment.

In Tropical North Queensland, efforts to reduce barriers to agricultural investment could be pursued in four distinct ways:

  1. The prioritisation of areas where the State would strongly support agricultural development;
  2. Streamlining development approvals and regulations at the Federal, State and local level through a single point-of-contact permanently based in the region;
  3. Making administrative and legislative improvements to land tenure legislation to reduce barriers to investment, taking into consideration the requirements of the Queensland Vegetation Management Act (1999); and
  4. Taking action to improve the effectiveness of land and resource planning to reduce conflict between potential investors and land holders.



Just as there are State Development Area’s (SDA’s) to promote economic development in Queensland, to reduce the uncertainty facing investors in agricultural development, it is proposed that a framework for prioritised Strategic Agricultural Development Areas be developed across TNQ. Similar in nature to a State Development Area, this would mean that in areas suitable for agricultural production, a single authority would coordinate decisions regarding:

  • Land use planning and approvals;
  • Vegetation management planning and approvals;
  • Native title negotiations;
  • Environmental impact studies and approvals;
  • Water allocations; and
  • Trunk infrastructure requirements.

The process would be managed through the creation of an Office of the Coordinator General in far northern Queensland, which would be tasked with coordinating strategic regional land use plans and major development approvals, supported by associated tenure resolution efforts.

  • That the State Government reduce uncertainty regarding land use and land tenure issues by establishing a framework for Strategic Agricultural Development Areas in Queensland.
  • That the State Government establish an Office of the Coordinator General in far northern Queensland based in Cairns to effectively coordinate strategic regional land use planning and major development approvals, supported by associated tenure resolution efforts.

FEDERAL ELECTORATES: Kennedy, Leichhardt